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Course year 2
Teaching units Unit electrochemical Energy Storage and Conversion
To be chosen by the student (lesson)
  • TAF: Optional subjects SSD: ING-IND/32 CFU: 6
Teachers: Davide PONTARA, Francesca SOAVI
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Aula virtuale su Microsoft Teams (immatricolati: 2020)

in attesa di attivazione da parte del docente

Exam type written
Evaluation final vote
Teaching language inglese
Contents download pdf download


Francesca SOAVI


In this course students: 1. Learn the fundamentals of cell electrochemistry, the materials characteristics and main issues related to the manufacturing process. 2. Classify the possible cell chemistry and technology in relation to the range of application in the automotive sector. 3. Learn modelling methodology for representing the cell output characteristic and the variability of cell parameters. 4. Understanding main issues related to the pack formation by series/parallel connection of cells. 5. Learn the sizing criteria for a battery pack. 6. Understand the most innovative electrochemical storage technology. 7. Learn the fundamental principle and sizing method for energy storage systems different from batteries: supercapacitors and flywheel.

Admission requirements

Electric drives

Course contents

The course is divided in two parts that will be teached by two different professors:
Prof.ssa Francesca Soavi, Electrochemistry of energy storage and conversion cells, 3 CFU
Prof. Davide Pontara, Batteries in Traction Applications, 3 CFU
The teachers will follow the overall program reported here after.

Basic concepts of cell electrochemistry..
Cell operation, cell stability, cell safety, cell ageing.
Standard protocols for cell evaluation.
Selection of proper battery chemistry (LIFePO4, Li-metal oxides) for possible automotive application (BEV, HEV).
Characteristics of the ion-lithium batteries manufacturing sector and of the corresponding market.
Classification of energy storage system for automotive application in relation to the vehicle type (BEV, HEV, PHEV). Battery positioning on Ragone plot.

Basic and precise model of a ion-lithium cell using concentrated parameters.
Influence on cell parameters of: SOC, lifetime, temperature, cycles.
Performance evaluation method for ion -lithium cells.

Battery pack and battery management system (BMS)
Criteria for selecting optimal pack voltage level.
Pack sizing and series/parallel connection of cells.
Analysis of the effect of cell parameter dispersion in determining End of Charge and end of Discharge process.
Cell equalization principle. Active and passive equalization methods and circuits.
Functional requirements for the BMS and interfacing characteristics with other powertrain components.
Possible BMS topologies.
Thermal control of battery pack
BMS safety function and standard requirements for management of ion-lithium cells
Other energy storage systems
Storage system with high power density: supercapacitors and flywheel (KERS).
General characteristics and main issues related to the application of supercaps and flywheel to the automotive sector. Simplified model at component level. Design criteria of a high power storage system based on these technologies.

Teaching methods

Frontal lessons: basic and technological aspects of electrochemical energy conversion systems such as lithium batteries and supercapacitors. Training and laboratory activities related to the realization of numerical model of several ion lithium cells and experimental laboratory test for determining the cell parameters.

Assessment methods

The final exam is oral and based on a program topic chosen by the student and two or more questions on the main program topics.The exam aims to determine both the acquisition of expected knowledge by the course program and the student's ability to find links among the covered topics, also using the reference material provided by the teacher.

Learning outcomes

Knowledge and understanding: through lectures and numerical training, students learn the methods and main analysis techniques for energy storage systems based on ion-lithium batteries suitable to be used in automotive application.

Applying knowledge and understanding: students learn how to configure and size a storage system for electric and hybrid-electric vehicle.

Making judgments: through the discussion with the teacher, students develop the ability to analyze the storage system sector and to understand the medium-long term trends of this sector.

Communication skills: through discussion with the teacher, students develop the ability to communicate the understanding of the sector, under technical and ‘market’ terms, in a way that they can be understood by an audience not specialized on the subject.


A lezione verranno date indicazioni sui testi di riferimento, tutti disponibili nelle biblioteche. Verranno inoltre forniti articoli e review di supporto.

Per Approfindimento:
Bruno Scrosati, K. M. Abraham, “Lithium Batteries: Advanced Technologies and Applications” Wiley, ISBN: 1118183657

Davide Andrea, “Battery Management Systems for Large Lithium Ion Battery Packs” 1st edition
Artech House; ISBN: 1608071049