### Technology

## Subject: AUTOMATIC CONTROLS (A.A. 2023/2024)

### master degree course in AUTOMOTIVE ENGINEERING

Course year | 1 |
---|---|

CFU | 9 |

Teaching units |
Unit Controlli Automatici
Related or Additional Studies (lesson)
- TAF: Supplementary compulsory subjects SSD: ING-INF/04 CFU: 9
Luigi BIAGIOTTI, Milad ALIZADEHTIR, Laura GIARRÈ |

Exam type | written |

Evaluation | final vote |

Teaching language | Italiano |

### Contents for surname initials l-z

### Teachers

*Luigi BIAGIOTTI*

*Milad ALIZADEHTIR*

### Overview

Provide the basic tools and methodologies for analyzing and designing feedback controls scheme

### Admission requirements

None

### Course contents

1) Mathematical models of dynamical systems. Block diagrams. Mason formula.

2) Differential equations for linear systems modeling. Laplace transform. Properties of the Laplace transform. Partial fraction expansion. Step responses of first and second order systems.

3) Frequency response. Bode plots. Qualitative sketch of Bode plots.

4) Stability of linear dynamic systems. Routh table. General properties of feedback systems. Steady state errors.

5) Definition and properties of the root locus. Rules for root locus plot.

6) Fourier transforms. Spectrum of a signal. Filters: low-pass, high-pass, band-pass, band-stop.

7) Feedback and Feed-forward control. Influence of disturbances, parametric variations, model errors. Stability of feedback systems: Bode criterion. Phase margin and Gain margin.

8) Analysis of feedback systems using sensitivity functions. Definition of sensitivity function, complementary sensitivity function and control sensitivity function.

9) Design of feedback controllers in the frequency domain. Static and dynamic compensators.

10) Lead-lag and lag-lead compensator. Inversion formulas. PID controllers: structure and realization aspects, tuning methods.

11) Feed-forward control. Pre-filtering of the reference signal. Cascade control. Compensation on a measurable disturbance.

12) Digital controllers. Structure of a digital control system. Spectrum of a sampled signal: aliasing and Shannon's theorem. Anti-aliasing filtering. Choice of the sampling period. Z-transforms and main properties. Difference equations and discrete-time transfer functions. Implementation of a digital controller by discretization. Discretization methods: backward differences, forward-difference, Tustin. Examples.

13) Matlab/Simulink.

### Teaching methods

Lectures with slides and exercises done on the blackboard.

### Assessment methods

The exam consists of a written test lasting almost three hours aimed at verifying the knowledge and skills acquired on the topics covered in the course. Specifically, the student will initially be asked a certain number of closed-ended questions on the entire course program, one third of which will contribute to the final outcome of the exam. Subsequently, the student will be subjected to some numerical exercises and theory questions with open answers to verify that he has acquired the notions and methods of analysis that are the basis of the course (Laplace transforms, definition of dynamic systems, response to canonical signals, analysis stability, steady state errors, harmonic response function, etc.). Finally, the student will be presented with a project problem aimed at verifying that the student is able to design control actions (in particular anticipating networks, retarders, or PID controllers), who has become familiar with the graphic and analytical techniques involved in the synthesis. of the controllers and with the frequency analysis.

### Learning outcomes

Knowledge and understanding: Through lectures the student learns the main methods of analysis of dynamical systems and synthesis of feedback control systems.

Applying knowledge and understanding: The student is able to analyze the dynamics of linear dynamic systems and to design a feedback control system.

Autonomy of judgment: The methods of analysis and the control techniques studied provide students with the skill of analyzing and controlling any type of physical system.

Communication skills: The theoretical lessons provide students with the ability to express the learned concepts with an appropriate language and to properly discuss the topics of the course.

Learning skills: the activities described allow the student to acquire the methodological tools to continue their studies and to be able to arrange their own update.

### Readings

- Katsuhiko, Ogata; Biagiotti, Luigi, "Fondamenti di controlli automatici", Pearson Italia.

- P. Bolzern, R. Scattolini, N. Schiavoni, "Fondamenti di controlli automatici", editore McGraw-Hill.

- Zanasi Roberto, "Esercizi di Controlli Automatici", Esculapio, Bologna, 2011.

Altri testi consigliati:

- G.F. Franklin, J.D. Powell, A. Emami-Naeini, “Feedback Control of Dynamic Systems”, Third Edition, Addison-Wesley, 1994.

- R.C. Dorf, R.H. Bishop, “Modern Control Systems”, Eighth Edition, Addison-Wesley, 1998.

- B.C. Kuo, “Automatic Control Systems”, Seventh Edition, Prentice Hall, 1995.

- C.L. Phillips, R.D. Harbor, “Feed Control Systems”, Fourth Edition, Prentice Hall International, 2000.

- G.F. Franklin, J.D. Powell, M. Workman, “Digital Control of Dynamic Systems”, Third Edition, Addison-Wesley, 1998.

### Contents for surname initials a-k

### Teachers

### Overview

Provide the basic tools and methodologies for designing feedback controls scheme.

### Admission requirements

A knowledge of the materials of the Calculus and Physics course.

### Course contents

1) Mathematical models of dynamical systems. Block diagrams. Mason formula.

2) Differential equations for linear systems modeling. Laplace transform. Properties of the Laplace transform. Partial fraction expansion. Step responses of first and second order systems.

3) State system description, and linearization

4) Frequency response. Bode plots. Qualitative sketch of Bode plots.

5) Stability of linear dynamic systems. Routh table. General properties of feedback systems. Steady state errors.

6) Definition and properties of the root locus. Rules for root locus plot.

7) Fourier transforms. Spectrum of a signal. Filters: low-pass, high-pass, band-pass, band-stop.

8) Feedback and Feed-forward control. Influence of disturbances, parametric variations, model errors. Stability of feedback systems: Bode criterion. Phase margin and Gain margin.

9) Analysis of feedback systems using sensitivity functions. Definition of sensitivity function, complementary sensitivity function and control sensitivity function.

10) Design of feedback controllers in the frequency domain. Static and dynamic compensators.

11) Lead-lag and lag-lead compensator. Inversion formulas. PID controllers: structure and realization aspects, tuning methods.

12) Feed-forward control. Pre-filtering of the reference signal. Cascade control. Compensation on a measurable disturbance.

13) Digital controllers. Structure of a digital control system. Spectrum of a sampled signal: aliasing and Shannon's theorem. Anti-aliasing filtering. Choice of the sampling period. Z-transforms and main properties. Difference equations and discrete-time transfer functions. Implementation of a digital controller by discretization. Discretization methods: backward differences, forward-difference, Tustin. Examples.

14) Matlab/Simulink

### Teaching methods

Frontal lessons with the use of a graphic tablet and slides. Exercises are provided to students one week in advance as homeworks. Then, the exercises are done on the blackboard or on the graphic tablet.

### Assessment methods

The exam consists of a written test lasting almost three hours aimed at verifying the knowledge and skills acquired on the topics covered in the course. Specifically, the student will initially be asked a certain number of closed-ended questions on the entire course program, one third of which will contribute to the final outcome of the exam. Subsequently, the student will be subjected to some numerical exercises and theory questions with open answers to verify that he has acquired the notions and methods of analysis that are the basis of the course (Laplace transforms, definition of dynamic systems, response to canonical signals, analysis stability, steady state errors, harmonic response function, etc.). Finally, the student will be presented with a project problem aimed at verifying that the student is able to design control actions (in particular anticipating networks, retarders, or PID controllers), who has become familiar with the graphic and analytical techniques involved in the synthesis. of the controllers and with the frequency analysis. The oral exam is optional and focuses on the presentation of a scientific article on research topics related to the course that the student presents after having deepened the reading and understanding, and it consists in a power point presentation. This oral exam highlights the student's ability to synthesize and understand. The oral exam can increase the written score by a maximum of 3 points.

### Learning outcomes

Knowledge and understanding: Through lectures the student learns the main methods of analysis of dynamical systems and synthesis of feedback control systems.

Applying knowledge and understanding: The student is able to analyze the dynamics of linear dynamic systems and to design a feedback control system.

Autonomy of judgment: The methods of analysis and the control techniques studied provide students with the skill of analyzing and controlling any type of physical system.

Communication skills: The theoretical lessons provide students with the ability to express the learned concepts with an appropriate language and to properly discuss the topics of the course.

Learning skills: the activities described allow the student to acquire the methodological tools to continue their studies and to be able to arrange their own update.

### Readings

P. Bolzern, R. Scattolini, N. Schiavoni, "Fondamenti di controlli automatici", editore McGraw-Hill.

L. Chisci, P. Falugi, M. Basso, '' Fondamenti di Automatica, Pitagora

Zanasi Roberto, "Esercizi di Controlli Automatici", Esculapio, Bologna, 2011.

Il materilae del corso puo' essere trovato nel sito docente:

https://giarre.wordpress.com/ca/