Subject: NATURAL RAW MATERIALS (A.A. 2023/2024)
Unit Materie prime naturali
Mineralogy, Petrography and Geochemistry (lesson)
At the end of the course the student should be able to:
understand the concept of raw material and be able to assess the importance of raw materials in the context of global socio-economic;
know the concepts of sustainability and analysis of the life cycle of a raw material;
able to classify natural raw materials;
understand the concept of secondary raw material;
able to classify the mining sites of raw materials;
classify and understand the physico-chemical properties and technology of the most common raw materials clay and clay;
know the different types zeolites, their physical and chemical properties, and their applications and their industrial applications;
learn the fundamental concepts and methods to perform the full characetrization of a raw material for ceramic use;
acquire the ability to classify a subject on the basis of physico-chemical and technological developments;
establish the intended use and any issues related to the use of a raw material;
Knowing the exploitation techniques for quarries and mine and their environmental restoration;
know and be able to classify the main products of the bricks, refractories, sanitaryware, cement and ceramics;
understand how and in which way the introduction of a raw material in a ceramic mixture modifies the technological properties;
be able to recognize what are the parameters and factors that determine the characteristics of production in a ceramic product;
know the experimental techniques and methodologies for obtaining and interpreting experimental data of thermal analysis;
know how to prepare a ceramic mixture of porcelain;
able to characterize the technological point of view a ceramic mixture from porcelain stoneware;
develop judgment autonomy in the field of management and use of raw materials.
The course requires the basic knowledge of Chemistry and Mineralogy at the first degree level. As far as the Chemistry is concerned, the student must have knowledge about the structure of the atom, elements, compounds, molecules, ions, atomic number, mass number, atomic and molecular mass. The chemical reactions. The chemical bonds. Reactions to equilibrium, equilibrium constant. Chemical thermodynamics: energy, enthalpy, entropy, free energy. Elements of chemical kinetics. As for the basics of Mineralogy, the student must possess knowledge of the crystalline state. Symmetry in crystals. The crystal lattice. Physical properties of minerals. Structure of minerals: coordination polyhedra. in compact packaging structures. Polymorphic transformations in minerals. Vicariance and isomorphism. Native elements; carbonates; sulphates; Oxides and hydroxides; Sulphides. Classification of silicates. Nesosilicate. Sorosilicati. Inosilicates. Phyllosilicates. Tectosilicates.
Concept of raw material and secondary raw material. Definition, classification, genesis and property of the local raw materials and raw materials from foreign countries. Clayey minerals (kaolinite, illite, smectite, clorite, talc, pyrophillite ...), feldspars, quartz, wollastonite, mullite and glassy phases. Main features of the national and international deposits and their exploitation. Definition of zeolitite and applications. Quarries and Mines. Exploitation of quarries and mines. Mining Geology. Environmental restoration. SIA ans VIA applied to the mining activity. Utilization of the various raw materials in the manufacture industry. Typologies of commercial products and characterization. Bricks. Cements and Concrete. Sanitary ware, Refractories. Ceramics. Preparation of a ceramic mixture. Characterization of a ceramic mixture.
Please contact the teacher via e-mail:
Lectures in "ex cathedra" mode integrated with practical activities both in class and lab. Field activities and visits to industrial sites are also part of the course. Attendance to the course is mandatory.
Oral examination at the end of the course. The oral test is composed of three general questions which regards the three distinct parts of the course: 1.Systematics of the raw materials; 2.Mining, processing and characterization of the raw materials; 3.Application of the raw materials. The topic of the first question is up to the student. The subject of the following questions will be up to the teacher and will regard the two sections of the course left. Students may also benefit the option to present a written report on one the three sections that will be discussed during the oral test. The prsentation will be followed by questions that regard the two sections of the course left. If the student answers each question correctly, the final score will be 30/30. A final question will allow the student to obtain the "laude (30/30 e lode)". Any error made or no answer is penalized by 1-3 points depending on the severity of the mistake. E.g. if the student makes two major errors, the penalty will be 6 points and the final score will be 24/30.
At the end of the course, the students should be able to acquire knowledge and skills in all the three distinct part of the course:
1.Systematics of the raw materials.
-know the concept of raw materials and know how to evaluate their importance in the actual socio-economic scenario;
-know how to classify natural raw materials;
-know the concept of secondary raw material;
2.Mining, processing and characterization of the raw materials.
-know how to classify the basics of mining art;
-classify and know the chemical, physical and technological properties of the most clayey and non-clayey raw materials;
-know the various zeolite types, their chemical and physical properties, their availability at national and international level and their applications and their industrial applications;
-learn the fundamental concepts and methods to perform a full laboratory analysis of a raw material for ceramic use;
-to acquire the ability to classify a substance on the basis of chemical, physical and technological data;
-Establish the intended use and any problems related to the use of certain raw materials;
-know the techniques of extraction of raw materials and their enrichment;
3.Applications of the raw materials.
-know how to classify the main products of the ceramic industry;
Understand how and to which extent the introduction of a raw material in a ceramic mixture modifies the technological properties;
-know ho to recognize what are the parameters and factors that determine the final characteristics of a ceramic product;
-know how to prepare a ceramic mixture of porcelain stoneware;
-know how to characterize from a technological point of view a ceramic body porcelain stoneware.
Dispense preparate dal docente disponibili in formato elettronico (files PDF).
BALDO G.L., MARINO M., ROSSI S. – Analisi del ciclo di vita LCA, materiali, prodotti, processi. Edizioni Ambiente.
BIFFI G.: Gres porcellanato. Gruppo Editoriale Faenza Editrice s.p.a. (disponibile in biblioteca).
G. Gisotti, Le cave. Dario Flaccovio Editore.
GOTTARDI G.: I minerali. Boringhieri, Torino.
MOTTANA A. - Fondamenti di Mineralogia geologica. Zanichelli, Bologna (disponibile in
SOCIETA’ CERAMICA ITALIANA - Materie prime. Gruppo Editoriale Faenza Editrice
s.p.a. (disponibile in biblioteca).
Alessandro Francesco Gualtieri - Introduzione alle tecniche analitiche strumentali. - libreriauniversitaria.it - 2019