Subject: LABORATORY OF PHYSICS II (A.A. 2021/2022)
Unit Laboratorio di fisica II
Experimental and Applied Studies (laboratory)
knowledge of the basic working principle of the most relevant electrical instrumentation and of a few electronic devices;
Ability to design, set up and perform simple experiments based on electrical measurements, aiming at the characterization of device/material properties;
Ability to report and discuss, both in written and oral form, the results of an experiment in a clear, rigorous and concise way;
None required. A good knowledge of analysis, electromagnetism and basic data analysis is advisable.
1 - Electric networks: Kirchoff laws; ideal and real voltage and current generators; Thevenin's and Norton's theorems , superposition
principle; the concept of ground.
2 - Analogic and digital instruments: operating principles of digital multimeters: signal conditioning and AD converter. Measurements of current, voltage and resistance; internal resistance
3 - Maximum likelihood and Methods of non-linear interpolation.
Uncertainty in parameter determination. Minimization algorithms: Grid; Gradient Search; Marquardt
4 - Digital Oscilloscope, BNC Cables and Probes
5 - Vacuum Tubes: diode, triode as an amplifier.
6 - Semiconductor: conduction and valence bands; energy gap, the Fermi level; doping of a semiconductor; p-n junction diode.
7 - LED and photovoltaic cells.
8 Transistor, BJT: principles of operation and common emitter circuit , MOSFET:
8 - operational amplifier; basic principles of feedback; closed loop operational amplifier; inverting and non-inverting configuration; integrator and differentiator. Operational amplifier as a comparator: use in analog-to-digital; the input of a digital multimeter (measuring current, voltage and resistance)
Experiments: simple electrical circuits and application of Thevenin theorem, RC and RLC circuit ,vacuum triode as an example of amplifier; photovoltaic cell, operational amplifier;
Lectures and lab classes; At the beginning of each experimental session micro-test help focusing on the essential pieces of information necessary to perform and understand the experiment itself. Experimental reports are checked during the course. Working student should perform a minimum number of lab classes, to be defined with the teacher office hours (by e-mail appointment) Monday, 15-17 Monday 15-17 - Please, send an e-mail to check availability
- micro- test on the experiment key concepts - group discussions on the results of the experiments - mid-term reports on the experiments; - final oral assessment on the topics treated during lectures and discussion of the performed experiments.
Knowledge and understanding:
At the end of the course the student will know the basic working principle of the most relevant electrical instrumentation (current and tension generators, oscillators, multimeters and oscilloscopes) and of a few electronic devices (diodes, transistors, operational amplifiers)
Applying knowledge and understanding:
At the end of the course the student will be able to set up and perform simple experiments based on electrical measurements, aiming at investigating the properties and performances of devices and materials.
At the end of the course the student will be able to design an experiment, choosing the more appropriate instruments and experimental set ups.
At the end of the course students will be able to write clear, rigorous and concise experimental reports. Moreover, they will be able to present their results and discuss them with other students.
At the end of the course students would be able to autonomously devise and set up a simple experiment, choosing among the available instrumentations, according to their characteristics.
dispense del docente
P.R. Bevington and D.K. Robinson “Data reduction and Error Analysis for the Physical Sciences” Mcgraw Hill Book
G. Torzo Capire e sperimentare gli amplificatori operazionali