Subject: CHEMISTRY (A.A. 2021/2022)
Acquire basic knowledge on: the relationship between atomic structure and the properties of the elements, the nature of chemical bond, molecular geometry, the quantitative relations between reactants and products in a chemical transformation (stoichiometry) and chemical thermodynamics, following a rational rather than a descriptive approach.
Learn how to approach and solve simple problems regarding chemical structure, stoichiometry and chemical thermodynamics, while mastering the relationship between macroscopic, microscopic and symbolic levels.
Manage both traditional and systematic nomenclature of chemical compounds and develop an appropriate technical language.
None required. A minimal knowledge of atomic structure and thermodynamics is regarded as useful.
INTRODUCTION. The three levels of chemistry: macroscopic, microscopic and symbolic levels. Historical developments of chemistry.
FUNDAMENTALS. Pure substances and mixtures, elementary substances, compounds and chemical elements; molecules, empirical and molecular formula; fundamental subatomic particles; atomic number, mass number, isotopes; atomic weights and atomic mass unit; mole, molar mass and Avogadro's number.
STOICHIOMETRY. Chemical reactions and chemical equations. Mass relations: limiting reagent, theoretical yield, yield and percent yield. Concentration of solutions.
ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE OF ATOMS. Historical developments and modern quantum mechanical treatment of hydrogen atom, hydrogenoid atomic species and polyelectronic atoms. Electronic configurations of the elements. Periodic Table and periodic properties.
CHEMICAL BONDING. Ionic bond. Covalent bond: Lewis theory and prediction of molecular geometry based on VS-EPR theory. VB and MO theories. Weak bonds.
CLASSIFICATION AND NOMENCLATURE OF INORGANIC COMPOUNDS AND CHEMICAL REACTIONS. Oxidation number, traditional and systematic nomenclature. Acid-base, exchange and redox reactions.
AGGREGATION STATES OF MATTER. General properties of gases, liquids and solids. Properties of pure gases and gas mixtures.
CHEMICAL THERMODYNAMICS AND EQUILIBRIUM. Enthalpic and entropic terms in physical and chemical transformations. Spontaneity criterion and Gibbs free energy. Thermodynamic equilibrium and equilibrium constant. Homogeneous and heterogeneous equilibria involving pure substances, mixtures or solutions (gas phase equilibria, phase transitions, colligative properties of solutions, solubility and acid-base equilibria).
Synchronous on-line lessons and practice exercises, home assignments and recommended textbooks. Virtual classroom activity follows original teaching material, made available on-line before the beginning of the course and consisting in lesson slides and a list of selected exercises. A test is performed after the completion of each main subject area (atomic structure, theories of chemical bonding and molecular geometry, stoichiometry/nomenclature, chemical thermodynamics). By answering to the closed-ended questions in the test, the students self-evaluate their extent of understanding and their ability to tackle typical problems. Students consultation: Monday 15-16, Wednesday 16-18 (send an email to firstname.lastname@example.org).
End-of-course oral assessment, focusing on the four main subject areas of the course (atomic structure, theories of chemical bonding and molecular geometry, stoichiometry/nomenclature, chemical thermodynamics). In addition, the student will present and discuss the properties of a Periodic Table group of elements of her/his choice, as found in recommended textbooks. The final mark is obtained as follows: - evaluation of KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING through one question on atomic structure (up to 7 points) and one question on chemical thermodynamics (up to 7 points); - evaluation of APPLYING KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING through one exercise on electronic structure and geometry of molecules (up to 7 points) and one exercise on stoichiometry or nomenclature (up to 2 points); - evaluation of MAKING JUDGEMENTS (up to 2 points); - evaluation of COMMUNICATION SKILLS (up to 2 points); - evaluation of LEARNING SKILLS through the presentation and discussion of the properties of the chosen Periodic Table group of elements (up to 4 points). In case the final mark exceeds 30 points, "cum laude" is automatically awarded.
KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING
At the end of the course, through virtual classroom lessons and practice exercises, home assignments, teaching resources available online and recommended textbooks, the student will gain a sound knowledge on the relationship between atomic structure and chemical properties of the elements, on the nature of chemical bond, on molecular geometry, on the quantitative relations between species involved in a chemical transformation (stoichiometry), on chemical nomenclature and on chemical thermodynamics.
APPLYING KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING
Through a number of selected virtual classroom exercises and home assignments, at the end of the course the student will be able apply such basic knowledge to core chemical problems, like: explaining the chemical properties of an element starting from its position in the Periodic Table, predicting the electronic structure and geometry of simple molecules, predicting the theoretical yield of a chemical reaction, naming simple chemical compounds, predicting whether a chemical transformation is spontaneous or nonspontaneous under specified conditions.
At the end of the course the student will be able to recognize by her/himself the most appropriate approaches for tackling qualitative and quantitative chemical aspects of major importance (reactivity, electronic structure and geometry of molecules, mass relations between reactants and products in a chemical transformation).
Through virtual classroom discussions and the final oral assessment, at the end of the course the student will be able to treat the subjects presented in the course with appropriate technical language, in a clear and rigorous way.
By proposing numerous examples, exercises and in-depth case studies, the course aims at developing the student's independent learning skills on subjects related with those presented in the lessons.
Lo studente può utilizzare il materiale didattico fornito dal docente (diapositive di supporto ed esercizi selezionati) e consultare i seguenti libri di testo:
R. H. Petrucci, F. G. Herring, J. D. Madura, C. Bissonnette, "Chimica Generale - Principi ed Applicazioni Moderne", 10a Ed., Piccin: Padova, 2013.
P. Atkins, L. Jones, "Principi di Chimica", 3a Ed., Zanichelli: Bologna, 2012. (http://online.zanichelli.it/atkinsprincipi).
A. M. Manotti Lanfredi, A. Tiripicchio, "Fondamenti di Chimica", Casa Editrice Ambrosiana: Milano, 2006.
I. Bertini, C. Luchinat, F. Mani, "Chimica", 2a Ed., Casa Editrice Ambrosiana: Milano, 2011.