### Sciences

## Subject: ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY I (A.A. 2024/2025)

### degree course in CHEMISTRY

Course year | 2 |
---|---|

CFU | 15 |

Teaching units |
Unit Chimica Analitica I
Analytical and Environmental Chemistry (lesson)
- TAF: Compulsory subjects, characteristic of the class SSD: CHIM/01 CFU: 9
Analytical and Environmental Chemistry (exercise)
- TAF: Compulsory subjects, characteristic of the class SSD: CHIM/01 CFU: 1
Analytical and Environmental Chemistry (laboratory)
- TAF: Compulsory subjects, characteristic of the class SSD: CHIM/01 CFU: 5
Lorenzo TASSI, Laura PIGANI |

Exam type | oral |

Evaluation | final vote |

Teaching language | Italiano |

### Teachers

### Overview

Some parts of the course will be formative to the effect of sharpening the student's ability to grasp complex theoretical concepts. Others will take into account the application of these concepts, providing 'technical' tools to be applied in their own appropriate ways.

### Admission requirements

General and Inorganic Chemistry

Organic Chemistry I

Mathematics I

Chemical equilibrium. Acids and bases. Solubility of salts. Metal complexes. Redox balances. Elements of mathematics and classical physics. Elements of chemical thermodynamics. Stoichiometric calculations.

### Course contents

Experimental (analytical) data - measurement uncertainty.

Significant figures and decimal figures. Propagation of data uncertainty through mathematical operations.

Errors: gross, systematic, random. Accuracy and precision. Repeatability and reproducibility.

Sample (finite) and population. The normal distribution.

The variable “Student t”. Confidence interval.

Significance test. Outlier, test t, test F.

Regression: calibration curve and related statistics. Determination of unknown data.

Detection and quantification limit, linearity range. Deviation from linearity.

General information on reactions of interest in analytical chemistry.

Acids and bases - pH of strong and weak acid and base solutions.

Acids and polyfunctional bases. pH of buffer solutions.

Acid-base titrations: potentiometric (and with chromatic indicator), conductivity, spectrophotometry.

Conductimetry. Cells and cell constants.

Interaction of electromagnetic radiation with matter: transmission, absorption, scattering.

Spectroscopic techniques.

The different regions of the spectrum of electromagnetic radiation, and the corresponding analytical absorption techniques: components of the instrumentation.

The law of Lambert-Beer. Applications and deviations from the limit law.

UV-visible spectroscopy.

Atomic absorption.

Precipitation equilibria. Separation by fractional precipitation.

Complexation equilibria.

Redox balances.

Simultaneous equilibria: pH, solubility, complexation, redox.

Exercitations (10 hours - 1ETCS): explanation and discussion of laboratory experiences; stoichiometry exercise; discussion of the results of practical experiences.

Laboratory experiences (60 hours - 5 ETCS):

gravimetry (8 hours); acid-base titrations (8 hours); pH-metric titrations (4 hours); argentometric titrations (8 hours); permanganometric titrations (8 hours); iodometric titrations (8 hours); complexometric titrations (8 hours); conductometric titrations (2 hours); spectrophotometric analysis (6 hours).

### Teaching methods

The course consists of classroom lectures and laboratory exercises. The two parts are coordinated, to recall in each of the two contexts what is shown in the other. The exercises are preceded by classroom lectures, which illustrate what students will specifically have to do in the laboratory. In the classroom lectures the teacher uses slides that have been previously provided to the students, so that they can integrate the contents of the same through personal notes, on the basis of what the teacher illustrates verbally. In addition, some texts are recommended on which to look for the best representation of the topics covered, to improve understanding considering the different training and personal vision of each student. Students are often asked to interrupt the lesson with questions and requests for clarification, as well as going to the lecturer's office for further information requested at any stage of learning.

### Assessment methods

The verification consists of: - written test, based on numerical exercises and stoichiometric calculations concerning the equilibria in solution. The exercises texts cover all the topics covered in the course. Passing the written test is a necessary condition for admission to: - oral exam, based on questions that refer to mistakes made in the written test, as well as to the chapter topics discussed in the course; - evaluation of the work carried out by the student during each laboratory exercise; - oral discussion of laboratory tests. The various tests can be supported on different dates, as long as they are compatible with the homogeneous nature of the course; the choice is made by the student. The student is offered the opportunity to perform a partial test.

### Learning outcomes

Knowledge and understanding.

The student is often reminded of the danger of memorizing complex mathematical expressions that can easily be obtained from simpler ones. He must also be able to find treatments and formulations that are not of primary importance on the teaching material.

Mathematical expressions represent the correlation between the physical phenomenon and the law that regulates it. During the tests, the student is asked to be able to do this comprehension exercise.

Ability to apply knowledge and understanding.

The ability to link, mathematically and phenomenologically, what is encountered in different contexts (eg different equilibrium situations, simultaneous equilibria and mutual interferences) is required. A fundamental role is played by the laboratory: the student is required to have understood these different connections.

Autonomy of judgment.

The ability to choose the appropriate 'problem solving' approach is required, even in the presence of situations that deviate from the ‘study case' illustrated during the course.

Communication skills.

The importance of language ownership and correct scientific terminology is emphasized during the lessons. The oral discussion must also verify the ability to understand, and the answers are also evaluated for correctness (understood in the most diverse aspects, both scientific and linguistic) and in clarity.

Learning ability.

The possibilities for the student to understand certain phenomena and the institutional topics are different, depending on the training and individual predisposition. Therefore, the lessons aim to present the topics following different approaches. During the verification, the student is allowed to express himself according to his own mindset, provided that the exposure is correct

and can be understood by those who will have to interact with him in a work environment. Communication must correspond to learning.

### Readings

D.A.Skoog, D.M.West, F.J.Holler, S.R.Crouch

Fondamenti di Chimica Analitica, II Edizione

EdiSES, Napoli, 2005

www.edises.it

J.N.Miller, J.C.Miller

Statistics and Chemometrics for Analytical Chemistry, 5th Edition

Pearson Education Limited, Harlow, UK, 2005

http://www.pearsoned.co.uk/HigherEducation/Booksby/Miller/

D. C. Harris, Chimica Analitica Quantitativa, Zanichelli

A.I. Vogel, Analisi Chimica Quantitativa, Casa Editrice Ambrosiana