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## Subject: PHYSICS II (A.A. 2024/2025)

### degree course in CHEMISTRY

Course year 2 6 Unit Fisica II Related or Additional Studies (lesson) TAF: Supplementary compulsory subjects SSD: FIS/03 CFU: 5 Related or Additional Studies (exercise) TAF: Supplementary compulsory subjects SSD: FIS/03 CFU: 1 Teachers: Alice RUINI oral final vote Italiano

### Overview

To provide the student with the fundamental elements of electrostatics, electrodynamics, magnetism and electromagnetic waves, by considering both conceptual/formal and practical (i.e. oriented to problem solving) aspects.

Basic expertise in algebra, trigonometry, functional analysis.
Fundamental knowledge from the Physics I Course, especially related to classical mechanics.

### Course contents

SYLLABUS (MAIN TOPICS)

PART 1

Electrostatic phenomena, electric charge, Coulomb force, electric field; electrostatic work and electrostatic potential energy; electrostatic potential and equipotential surfaces.
Gauss theorem and its application to several charge distributions, conductors in electrostatic equilibrium. Capacity and capacitors.
Electrostatic energy and pressure.Electric dipoles, polar molecules and their properties.Dielectric constant, polarization in dielectrics and general equations for electrostatics.Linear, isotropic and anisotropic dielectrics.Atomic and molecular mechanisms of polarization. Electromotive force,electric current intensity,electric current density, Ohm lex,electric resistance,Joule effect.Electric conductivity. (Drude model) Kirchhoff laws, RC circuits.
PART 2
Stationary magnetic phenomena: magnetic dipoles and electric currents.Lorentz force,magnetic field,interaction currents-magnetic field (2 Laplace law), momentum on a circuit and magnetic moment on a circuit;velocity selector,mass spectrometer,cyclotron;Hall effect. Magnetic field generated by currents (1 Laplace law), interaction between currents.Ampere theorem, solenoid, toroid. Gauss theorem for the magnetic field.
Magnetic properties of matter: magnetic dipoles, atomistic magnetism, magnetic permeability, magnetization, dia-, para- and ferro-magnetism; hysteresis.
Slowly time-varying electric and magnetic fields, Faraday-Lenz law and applications. Inductance and RL circuits, magnetic energy, mutual induction. Displacement current and Ampere-Maxwell law. Alternate currents; LC and RLC circuits, free (damped, and forced) electric oscillations; resonance.
PART 3
Maxwell equations and electromagnetic waves: propagation, spectrum and general properties; polarization, electromagnetic energy density and momentum (radiation pressure), Poynting vector.

### Teaching methods

Participated lectures to present the topics foreseen in the program. Guided examples and numerical exercises. More specifically, teaching is ordinarily based on frontal lectures through blackboard or tablet, where the topics are developed with the suitable formal details and properly commented. During the Course, practical exercitations are also forseen. Participated lectures to present the topics foreseen in the program. Guided examples and numerical exercises. The Course mainly envisages theoretical lectures on the topics specified in the "Contenuti del corso" Section, but also solutions of related simple problems. Students’ questions and interventions are highly encouraged. Attendance is not mandatory, but strongly recommended. The Course is delivered in Italian. All technical and practical information, as well as the teaching materiali s available on the Dolly platform. Students are invited to subscribe and regulary check that platform.

### Assessment methods

The learning verification will be achieved by means of a final assessment, consisting in a written exam, lasting three hours and structured in two parts. The first part is mainly aimed at checking the knowledge and understanding ability of the trated topics in electromagnetism, and it is structured in three open questions, every one developed in few (3-4) ì points; one question is about electrostatics (part 1 of the program), one is about magnetism, (part 2 of the program) and the last one is about electromagnetic waves (part 3 of the program). The second part is mainly designed to evaluate the capability in applying knowledge and understanding by means of the solution of three problems - every one developend on more points - related to three parts of the program, namely electrostatics, magnetism and time-dependent electromagnetic fields. The final score is obtained by averaging the evaluation of the two parts (that are both evaluated in thirties, 10 points for every question/problem). In any case, the whole exam is overcome is the grades obtained in the single parts (and not only their average) are more than (or equal to) 18/30. Moreover, the opportunity of a further oral examination is offered, with the possibility of changing the score of the written exam by -2/+4 grades. Student-workers who cannot attend classes should contact the teacher and can use the advised textbooks.

### Learning outcomes

Knowledge and understanding ability:
Students will acquire the basic knowledges on the classical electromagnetism theory by means of classes and provided educational material.
Ability in applying knowledge:
Students will be able, at the end of the course, to apply knowledges to physical problems on the mentioned topics by means of numerical exercises that will be carried out.
Making judgements:
Thanks to critical presentation of the topics and to several provided examples, students will be able to autonomously recognize the approaches and models that are suitable to the different kinds of problems in electromagnetism.
Communication skills:
Thanks to the individual study and the discussion with the teacher, students will be able to report on the arguments presented in the course, with suitable scientific language and formalism.
Learning skills:
The participation to both theory lectures and practical sessions as well as the individual study will allow the student to aquire metodoligical tools that are essential to properly supply autonomous further studies and updates, that allow the Student to face new issues (not only exercises where they simply have to automatically repeat what was seen during the lectures); so, the peculiar abilities that will be developed are:
(i) independent learning
(ii) in-depth analysis of topics of electromagnetism that are not explicitly treated during the frontal lectures.