Subject: PHYSICS I (A.A. 2023/2024)
Unit Fisica I
Mathematics, Information Technology and Physics (lesson)
Provide the student with the fundamentals of general physics, including kinematics, statics and dynamics of material points and rigid bodies, oscillations, celestial mechanics, fluid mechanics, and acoustics. The conceptual and formal foundations will be discussed along with the aspects of practical understanding functional to solving problems and carrying out exercises.
- element of algebra, trigonometry, functional analysis
9 CFU, 36 lessons, each lasting 2 hours, for a total of 72 hours of classroom teaching.
UNIT OF MEASURE, ERRORS, PHYSICAL QUANTITIES - Physical quantities. Systems of units of measure. Errors. Significant figures. Dimensional equations. Scalar and vector quantities. Vector calculus.
KINEMATICS OF A PARTICLE - Definition of reference frames. Motion in one dimension. Definition of velocity and acceleration. Motion with constant acceleration, the motion of projectiles. Motion in two and three dimensions. Velocity and acceleration vectors. Normal and tangential component of acceleration vector. Projectile motion (i.e. parabolic motion). Circular motion. Angular velocity and acceleration vectors. Harmonic motion.
DYNAMICS OF A PARTICLE - Inertial reference frames and the first law of dynamics. Second law of dynamics, concept of force, and definition of inertial mass. Definition of momentum. Third law of dynamics. Examples of forces: weight force, elastic forces, normal constraint forces, static and dynamic frictional forces, tension in strings, viscous frictional force, and limiting velocity. Centripetal forces. Definition of work, power, kinetic energy, and kinetic energy theorem. Conservative force fields. Potential energy. Relationship between potential energy and forces. Theorem of conservation of mechanical energy. Dissipative forces. Angular momentum (i.e. moment of momentum) and moment of force. Theorem of angular momentum. Central force field. Inclined plane. Simple pendulum. Looping the loop.
RELATIVE MOTION - Theorem of relative velocities and theorem of relative accelerations (drag velocity and acceleration, Coriolis acceleration). Galilean relativity. Dynamics in non-inertial systems, apparent forces. Rectilinear uniformly accelerated dragging motion. Uniform circular dragging motion. Non-inertial corrections to weight force on Earth.
DYNAMICS OF SYSTEMS OF PARTICLES - External and internal forces on the system. Total momentum, total angular momentum, moment of total forces for the system. Center of mass. Cardinal laws for dynamics of body systems (i.e. theorem of motion of center of mass and theorem of moment of angular momentum). Conservation laws for isolated systems. Center-of-mass system. Koenig theorems (NO DIM). Force couple. Work of a force couple. Equivalent force systems. Center of a field of parallel forces, barycenter. Systems of two particles, reduced mass, and relative velocity/acceleration. Universal gravitational force and gravitational mass, relationship between gravitational force and weight force. Impulse of a force. Impulsive forces and collisions (elastic and inelastic). Collision of a particle against a wall.
CELESTIAL MECHANICS - Universal gravitational force and gravitational mass. Gravitational field generated by a homogeneous spherical object and the relationship between gravitational force and weight force. Kepler's laws. Motion of satellites. Escape velocity.
RIGID BODY - Definition of a rigid body. Degrees of freedom. Description of a continuous body. Kinematics of a rigid body, instantaneous axis of rotation. Rotational motion around a fixed axis: Moment of inertia, Huygens-Steiner theorem (NO DIM) and connection with Koenig's theorem, Kinetic energy, Axial and orthogonal component of momentum and moment of force. Axial cardinal equation. Physical pendulum (i.e. compound pendulum).
lectures on the blackboard, discussion of conceptual and formal aspects and problems, guided resolution of exercises also through an additional 20 hours of tutoring with a PhD student. strongly recommended attendance (not compulsory) language of the course: Italian
There is a written exam (3 hours) consisting of three exercises, which serves as a prerequisite for admission to the oral exam. The maximum score for the written exam is 36 points (12 points per exercise), and a minimum score of 18 is required to be eligible for the oral exam. Passing the written exam allows admission to one (and only one) of the six subsequent oral exams (one oral exam per session), which the student may choose. During the written exam, only a calculator is allowed. The oral exam consists of questions on the theoretical topics covered during the course, and the maximum score for the oral exam is 30. The final exam grade, on a scale of thirty, is obtained by averaging the score from the written exam and the score from the oral exam, plus a possible additional factor of up to 3 points. The final grade, thus obtained, is communicated to the individual student immediately at the end of his oral exam. Passing the exam requires a final evaluation of at least 18/30.
Knowledge and Understanding: acquire the knowledge and understanding of classical mechanics and of the more fundamental aspects of fluid dynamics and thermodynamics, through the effective use of university textbooks.
Ability to apply Knowledge and understanding: independently solve exercises, design and describe feasible experiments to measure various physical quantities
Making Judgements: acquire the data necessary to solve a given problem, evaluate the feasibility of experiments, generalize and apply what has been learned in class to problems not explicitly covered
Communication skills: interacting with teachers in professional language, communicating the acquired knowledge in written format, with particular attention to mathematical formalism and dimensional analysis
Learning skills: acquire those skills and knowledge necessary to continue studies with more advanced physics courses, e.g. analytical mechanics, statistical mechanics, etc.
Mazzoldi, Nigro, Voci, Atzeni, Michelotti, Fisica - Volume I - Meccanica e Termodinamica, EdiSES s.r.l. Napoli
Hallidey, Resnick, Krane, Fisica 1, Ambrosiana, Zanichelli
Zani, Duò, Taroni, Esercizi di Fisica, Meccanica e Termodinamica, EdiSES s.r.l. Napoli
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