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## Subject: INDUSTRIAL THERMOFLUIDS (A.A. 2022/2023)

### degree course in TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE SMART INDUSTRY

Course year CFU 1 6 Unit TERMOTECNICA INDUSTRIALE Mechanical and energy efficiency technologies (lesson) TAF: Compulsory subjects, characteristic of the class SSD: ING-IND/10 CFU: 2 Teachers: Marco CAVAZZUTI Unit laboratorio di Termotecnica Industriale Other Skills Required for Access to the Job Market (laboratory) TAF: Various educational activities SSD: NN CFU: 4 Teachers: Marco CAVAZZUTI Moodle portal Aula virtuale su Microsoft Teams oral final vote Italiano

### Overview

The course aims at providing students with knowledge of thermodynamics, fluid mechanics and heat transfer fundamentals. It also promotes and helps develop the ability to analyze processes and applications within the abovementioned areas, in order to quantify efficiency and design systems.

Elements of integral, differential, and vector calculus as provided in the Mathematics for Engineering course. Basic elements of computer programming as provided in the Computer Programming course.

### Course contents

Thermodynamics (3CFU)
1. Main concepts: system, process, transformation, properties; units and dimensions (5h)
2. First law of thermodynamics: energy, work, heat, internal energy, enthalpy, specific heat, energy balance for closed systems, mass and energy balance equations for control volumes (5h)
3. Second law of thermodynamics: thermal machines, statements, reversibility and irreversibility, Carnot's theorem, efficiency and coefficient of performance, thermodynamic temperature scale, Clausius' inequality, entropy and principle of non diminishing entropy, second-law efficiency, balance of entropy for control volumes (7h)
4. Simple compressible systems: state of a pure substance, phase change, diagrams, solids, liquids, mixtures, real and ideal gases (10h)

Fluid mechanics (1.5CFU)
5. Fluid flow: definitions, properties, flow description and characterization (2h)
6. Fluid statics: hydrostatic equation, pressure measurements, hydrostatic forces (3h)
7. Similarity theory and dimensional analysis (1.5h)
8. Balance equations in fluid dynamics: mass and momentum conservation, energy conservation, Bernoulli's equation and mechanical energy conservation, head losses (7h)

Heat transfer (1.5CFU)
9. Conduction: Fourier's law, one-dimensional Fourier's equation, steady-state conduction in plane and cylindric shells, electric analogy (4h)
10. Convection: natural, forced, and mixed convection, Newton's law of cooling, boundary layers and dimensionless numbers, determination of heat transfer coefficient in a variety of flow configurations (4h)
12. Conjugate heat transfer processes: insulation, heat exchangers, transient conduction and convection, finned surfaces (4h)

### Teaching methods

The course will include both lectures on theory and applications, and exercises in computer labs. The laboratory lessons involve solving exercises in python. The course will be given in italian language.

### Assessment methods

Written test (mandatory): 1. It is required to quantitatively solve problems in thermodynamics and its applications, fluid mechanics and its applications, heat transfer (max score: 20) 2. It is required to answer theoretical questions in the same areas (max score: 13) 3. Time allowed: 2 h 4. The test is passed if the total score is greater than or equal to 18 and the score obtained on the theoretical questions is greater than or equal to 5. Oral test: 1. Optional if the written test is passed 2. Mandatory if the total score in the written test is greater than or equal to 18, while the score obtained on the theoretical questions is lower than 5 3. Questions may span the whole syllabus 4. The test shall be taken in the same session as the written test, provided that the total score in the written test is greater than or equal to 18 Intermediate tests: 1. Two intermediate tests, reserved for attending students, are planned in place of the written test: the first on the thermodynamics program half-way through the course, the last on the fluid dynamics and heat transfer program at the end of the course.

### Learning outcomes

Knowledge and understanding:
Students will acquire the ability to understand and model transport phenomena through physical relationships.

Applying knowledge and understanding:
Students will develop the ability of applying the delivered body of concepts to engineering and industry challenges in the fields of thermodynamics, fluid dynamics, and heat transfer.

Making judgements:
Students will ultimately be able to determine the most suitable approach for engineering and industry challenges in the fields of thermodynamics, fluid dynamics, and heat transfer.

Communication:
Students will develop the ability to communicate - verbally and through written documents - the delivered body of concepts and the approach devised to address specific problems.

Lifelong learning skills:
Students will be able to implement a constant learning process on thermo-fluid dynamics topics.