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Subject: BASICS OF PATHOLOGY AND PHARMACOLOGY (A.A. 2022/2023)

degree course in OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY

Course year 2
CFU 5
Teaching units Unit Farmacologia
First Aid (lesson)
  • TAF: Basic compulsory subjects SSD: BIO/14 CFU: 1
Teachers: Fabio TASCEDDA
Unit Patologia generale
Biomedicine (lesson)
  • TAF: Basic compulsory subjects SSD: MED/04 CFU: 2
Teachers: Milena NASI
Unit Genetica
Biomedicine (lesson)
  • TAF: Basic compulsory subjects SSD: MED/03 CFU: 1
Teachers: Livia GARAVELLI
Unit Rianimazione (BLSD)
First Aid (lesson)
  • TAF: Basic compulsory subjects SSD: MED/41 CFU: 1
Teachers: Massimo GIRARDIS
Exam type oral
Evaluation final vote
Teaching language Italiano
Contents download pdf download

Teachers

Massimo GIRARDIS
Milena NASI
Livia GARAVELLI
Fabio TASCEDDA

Overview

GENERAL PATHOLOGY - knowledge of biological processes that underlie diseases: causes and mechanisms of cellular and tissue damage, adaptability, and the host defense. Understanding of the inflammatory response, processes of repair and possible alterations of these processes. Understanding pathogenic mechanisms that characterize cancer, disorders of the immune system and / or caused by environmental factors.
GENETICS - Knowledge of the mechanisms of genetic diseases and genetic components.
PHARMACOLOGY - Describe the general characteristics of the drugs and their interaction with the body. Knowledge of the classification and nomenclature of drugs. Knowledge and understanding of the general mechanisms that regulate the response to drugs and their toxicity.
CARDIOPULMONARY RESUSCITATION (CPR) - Recognize the principles of cardiopulmonary resuscitation, ventilation and airway management.

Admission requirements

Basic knowledge of Anatomy, Histology, Biochemistry, Physiology.

Course contents

GENERAL PATHOLOGY- Concepts of normal homeostasis, adaptation, disease, etiology, pathogenesis. Adaptive responses of cells, tissues and organs induced by excessive physiologic stresses or pathological stimuli. Cell injury and cell death. Inflammatory responses to tissue damage: a) acute inflammation (vascular changes, cellular events, chemical mediators). Outcomes of acute inflammation. Chronic and granulomatous inflammations. Systemic effects of inflammation. Processes of repair (fibrosis, wound healing by first or second intention). Pathological aspects of inflammation and repair. The immune system: normal and pathological immune response. Neoplasms: nomenclature and characteristics, local invasion and metastases. Conformational and neurodegenerative diseases: pathogenic mechanisms.
GENETICS - Introduction: mendelian inheritance and its mechanisms. Genetic disorders and etiologic classification. Genomic basis of diseases: mechanisms, nature and consequences of the mutations. The genetic tests. Examples of genetic diseases: intellectual disability. Examples of genetic diseases: neuromuscular diseases.
PHARMACOLOGY – Definition of pharmacology, drug and medicinal. Mechanisms of drug passage across cell membranes, routes of administration, absorption of drugs through different routes. The apparent volume of distribution, drug binding to plasma proteins, accumulation of drugs. Hepatic mechanisms and system modulation by exogenous and endogenous factors. Renal and hepatic excretions of drugs. Drug targets. Types of receptors. Concept of agonist and antagonist. Dose-effect curve. Pain therapy; the drugs of the "respiratory" patient; drugs and falls; drug myopathies; muscle relaxants, neuromuscular blockers; drugs for major neurodegenerative diseases (Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease).
CARDIOPULMONARY RESUSCITATION- Epidemiology and main causes of cardiac arrest. Basic life support. Oxygen therapy and ventilation. Basic use of defibrillators.
The contents may differ in some specific aspects between the different CdL, for further information please refer to the individual teacher.
AUDIOLOGY (1CFU)
Evolution of the normal stages of language development
Neonatal Hearing Screening
Development of hearing aids and cochlear implants
Development of communication skills in the child with associated disabilities

Teaching methods

All lessons will be held with frontal teaching methods in Italian. Attendance is compulsory at 75%.

Assessment methods

GENERAL PATHOLOGY - Oral exam (TRP and LOGO).The course is integrated and composed by different modules. Modules must be done on the same day of exam. The refusal of evaluation of one module implies the refusal of the entire exam; written test with 30 multiple choice questions in 30 minutes, one correct answer (TO and FISIO). GENETICS - Oral exam (TRP AND LOGO); written test with 15 multiple choice questions in 15 minutes, one correct answer (TO and FISIO). PHARMACOLOGY written exam with multiple choice questions: 15 questions, one correct answer. 18 minutes. CARDIOPULMONARY RESUSCITATION - written exam with multiple choice questions: 8 questions in 20 min. AUDIOLOGY (FISIO) - written exam with 20 multiple choice and 2 open questions (1 h). The final grade is obtained as the weighted average of the grades of the individual modules (based on the number of credits), each of which is considered passed with a grade equal to or greater than 18/30. To note: if LOGO and TRP students want to refuse the evaluation of one single module, they have to give the entire exam (all the 4 modules).

Learning outcomes

GENERAL PATHOLOGY- Knowledge of etiology and development of pathological processes. Adaptive modifications induced in cells, tissues, organs, apparatuses by abnormal stimuli. Body’s ability to contain and repair the damage (acute and chronic inflammatory responses; immune response, processes of repair). Pathologic aspects of inflammation and repair. Basic knowledge of neoplasms, local invasion and metastases. Basic knowledge on pathogenic mechanisms of conformational neurodegenerative diseases.
GENETICS – Knowledge of the genetic basis of the main human disorders and possible mechanisms of transmission.
PHARMACOLOGY- Basic knowledge on drug characteristics, drug-organism interactions, targeted drug delivery.
CARDIOPULMONARY RESUSCITATION - Acquisition of the skills required for providing basic life support.

Making judgements
Students improve their skills in critically evaluating the strategies and the activities in specific areas of practice.
Communication
Acquisition of the ability to clearly express concepts and thoughts with appropriate language and technical/scientific terminology.
Lifelong learning skills
Students reach the maturity to autonomously update their background.

Readings

PATOLOGIA GENERALE - Rubin, Reisner “L'essenziale patologia generale” Ed. Piccin, 2015; Robbins e Cotran “Le Basi Patologiche delle Malattie- Patologia Generale - Vol. 1” EDRA, 2017. Per consultazione.
GENETICA - Neri G. Genuardi M. Genetica Umana e Medica. Elsevier Masson Ed., 2014
FARMACOLOGIA – Cella S.G., Di Giulio A.M., Gorio A., Scaglione F. “Farmacologia generale e speciale per le Lauree Sanitarie”-Seconda edizione Piccin , Padova, 2018.
RIANIMAZIONE - Argomenti di Anestesia e rianimazione per le Lauree Sanitarie. Rosa-Billotta. Piccin Editore.
AUDIOLOGIA (FISIO) - Manuale di Neuropsichiatria Infantile. De Negri. Editore ‎ Piccin.