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Subject: ANATOMY (A.A. 2021/2022)


Course year 1
Teaching units Unit Istologia
Biomedicine (lesson)
  • TAF: Basic compulsory subjects SSD: BIO/17 CFU: 1
Teachers: Gianluca CARNEVALE
Unit Anatomia di base e del movimento
Biomedicine (lesson)
  • TAF: Basic compulsory subjects SSD: BIO/16 CFU: 4
Teachers: Carla PALUMBO
Unit Biologia applicata
Biomedicine (lesson)
  • TAF: Basic compulsory subjects SSD: BIO/13 CFU: 1
Teachers: Gianluca CARNEVALE
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Aula virtuale su Microsoft Teams (immatricolati: 2021)

Exam type oral
Evaluation final vote
Teaching language Italiano
Contents download pdf download




The goal of this course is to provide the knowledge of the general organization of the human body, and especially of the musculoskeletal system (with its components - skeleton, joints and muscles) and nervous system (central and peripheral). The student will implement hierarchical view of relationships between cells, tissues, organs and systems. Moreover, the student will be trained in the methodology of the anatomical description, after acquiring definitions of anatomical position and body plans. Particular attention will be focused on the constitution and function of locomotor system (classification, and morphology of the structures forming the skeletal, articular, and muscular systems) and the anatomical and functional organization of the central and peripheral nervous system (in both somatic and visceral sections). The student will acquire also the anatomical basis of the reflexes (to understand the involvement in the motor activity) and morpho-functional analysis of the motor and sensory systems.
For a fuller understanding of the formative objectives, please refer to the expected learning outcomes.

Admission requirements

Knowledge of general biology, cytology and histology (propaedeutic module).

Course contents

After passing the modules of General Biology (1 CFU) and Histology (1 CFU) for TO, and the module of Histology (2 CFU) for FIS, the human anatomy part can be taken.

GENERAL ANATOMY. Anatomical position and major planes of section. Anatomical language (position terminology and movement terminology). Tegumentary apparatus (briefly), Cardio-vascular apparatus, Hemolymphopoietic apparatus (briefly), Respiratory apparatus, Digestive apparatus (briefly), Urinary apparatus (briefly), Endocrine apparatus, Locomotive apparatus, Nervous system: organization of central and peripheral sections; sense organs (with particular reference to the eyeball).
Introduction to the functional interaction between the locomotor system and the nervous system and the role of proprioceptors in the reflex regulation of muscle tone and posture.
Anatomy of the eye muscles and their innervation.
OSTEOLOGY. Division of the skeleton: axile and appendicular.
Spinal column: general conformation and physiological curvatures; general characteristics of the vertebrae and peculiar features of the various sections (cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacro-coccygeal).
Appendicular skeleton: upper limb (scapular girdle, humerus, radius and ulna, hand bones) and lower limb (pelvic girdle, femur, tibia and fibula, foot bones).
ARTROLOGY. Synarthrosis (hints). Diarthrosis: structure and morpho-functional classification. Spinal column joints.
MYOLOGY. Main muscle groups: mimic muscles, masticatory muscles, antero-lateral neck muscles, dorsal muscles, thoraco-abdominal muscles. Sherrington motor unit (constitution and significance).
NEUROANATOMY. Classification of sensitivity. Propriceptors (neuromuscular spindles and Golgi muscle-tendon organs): morphology and functional role.
Ascending (sensory) pathways and anatomical differences of conscious and unconscious sensory pathways. Descending (motor) pathways: pyramidal and extrapyramidal systems: phasic movements and automatisms.
Cerebellum: anatomical organization and functions.
Peripheral nervous system (spinal section): composition of spinal nerves, formation of plexuses, innervation territories (hints).
Peripheral nervous system (encephalic section): meaning/function of cranial nerves (hints).
POSTURE. Importance of the correct postural attitude and consequences of posture alterations.

Distribution of the 4 credits of Anatomy: Basic Anatomy (1 CFU). Movement Anatomy: Osteology (1 CFU), Arthrology and Myology (1 CFU), Neuroanatomy (1 CFU).

Teaching methods

The teaching methodology used to illustrate the aspects of functional morphology is that of lectures, with computer support to demonstrate the structure and mode of operation of the various organs and apparatuses, through the projection of power-point files. This methodology is also used to make the student understand the subdivision of the organism into the various body regions. Particular attention is given to all components, nervous and musculoskeletal, concerning movement.

Assessment methods

The verification of the learning is carried out through an oral interview, through which it is investigated the acquisition by the student of notions of both basic anatomy and special anatomy, in particular concerning the anatomical formations related to the motricity.

Learning outcomes

KNOWLEDGE AND ABILITY TO UNDERSTAND: Through frontal teaching, the student learns the cellular basis of life, the structure and function of cells and tissues, the various levels of organization of the human organism and the functional anatomy of the organs and apparatuses that compose it.
ABILITY TO APPLY KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING: Through frontal teaching, the student is able to understand and be able to use, in the course of the profession, the complex functional interactions of the components of the locomotor apparatus and their nervous regulation.
AUTHONOMY OF JUDGEMENT: Through the activities performed, the student is able to understand, critically discuss and analyze the anatomical and structural aspects inherent to the problems related to movement and its alterations.
COMMUNICATIVE SKILLS: Oral learning verifications, allow the student to develop the ability to describe effectively and exhaustively the anatomical formations dedicated to the functions object of the professional figure and to express the concepts learned with appropriate language, as well as to support a discussion about it.
LEARNING CAPACITIES: the activities described allow the student to acquire the methodological tools to eventually continue his/her training in the practical field and to be able to independently provide for his/her own constant updating in the field of physical rehabilitation techniques.


Fondamenti di Anatomia, lineamenti di Istologia e Fisiologia. Autori: Palumbo et al.