Subject: GENERAL METHODOLOGY OF REHABILITATION AND KINESIOLOGY (A.A. 2023/2024)
Clinical Interdisciplinary Studies (lesson)
Unit Esame muscolare arto inferiore
Unit Esame muscolare arto superiore
Unit Bioingegneria elettronica ed informatica
Interdisciplinary Studies (lesson)
Unit Biomeccanica articolare a
Unit Biomeccanica articolare b
Preventive Care and Health Services (lesson)
At the end of the course the student should be able to illustrate the basic laws of biomechanics and kinesiology that govern the human body, especially those concerning the main joints (back, hip, knee, ankle, foot, shoulder, elbow, wrist and hand) as the joints, muscles and interconnected structures interact with their surroundings. The student will have to analyze the movement of the human body in order to analyze more complex functions (ex.walking) and will have to be able to identify the main methodologies used for its analysis and give an interpretation.
To understand the objectives, please refer to the section "expected learning outcomes".
Knowledge related to human anatomy and human anatomy of movement. Physiology.
Basic knowledge of physics.
KINESIOLOGY (2 CFU)
General definitions, properties of the muscle, kinetic chains, implications in relation to the properties of the muscle. Postures, positions, decubitus, different types of reactions, global and specialized movement. Upright station and its derivatives. Analysis of the sign: deficit and compensation. Posture steps. Architecture of the gait, gait cycle and its phases, muscular actions in the single phases. Phylogenetic evolution of the upper limb, architecture of manipulation, types of grip, interaction between functional systems, vision and manipulation.
ARTICULAR BIOMECHANICS (2 CFU)
Definitions of movement, friction, axes and planes of the human body, main terms and laws of biomechanics, arthrous and osteocinematics, forces and levers. Vector analysis.
For the main joints (hip, knee, foot, shoulder, elbow, hand, spine) planes and axes of movement, active and passive Range of Motion, ligaments and their role, tendons, joint means, muscle vectors, contextualization of the joint function in daily life. Outline of the main damaging mechanisms for each joint.
ARTICULAR AND MUSCULAR EXAMINATION OF THE LOWER LIMB (2 CFU)
Definition, characteristics and execution procedures for performing joint and muscle testing. For the main joints of the lower limb (hip, knee, ankle, foot) and trunk they study muscles, the origins and insertions, their actions . Joint and muscle evaluation of each joint mentioned. Main tests for measuring muscle length. Rib cage and diaphragm. Joint movements and muscle actions in daily life.
ARTICULAR AND MUSCULAR EXAMINATION OF THE UPPER LIMB (2 CFU)
For the main joints of the upper limb (shoulder, elbow, wrist, hand) they studymuscles, their origins and insertions, their actions. Joint and muscle evaluation of each joint mentioned. Main tests for measuring muscle length. Neck musculature. Joint movements and muscle actions in daily life.
ELECTRONIC AND COMPUTER BIOENGINEERING (2 CFU)
Objectives of the path function and its fundamental mechanisms. Energy efficiency, motion of the center of mass and forces exchanged with the ground. Gait analysis tools and methods. Reading and interpretation of the graphs relating to joint kinematics, moments of forces and power of the hip, knee and ankle joints. Muscle activations in the different phases of the step. Basic notions of running dynamics
Teaching is normally delivered through face-to-face lectures, pratical exercises and tutoring for joint and muscle assessment. The lessons are carried out with the aid of audiovisual means (Power Point presentations, films, tutorial ..) and with guided discussions inserted within the lessons. Attendance is obligatory as required by the didactic regulations (please refer to the document). A lower attendance does not allow enrollment in the exam session in which learning occurs. The attendance record is carried out through a paper signature register. The teachers are available to receive students by appointment (see instructions on the teacher's Unimore page). The course is held in Italian. With Covid-19 pandemic situation, teaching takes place through online lessons.
The exams take place at the end of the course according to the official exam session calendar. The student can sign up on the Esse3 platform. - ARTICULAR BIOMECHANICS, MUSCULAR AND ARTICULAR EXAMINATION OF THE LOWER LIMB, MUSCULAR AND ARTICULAR EXAMINATION OF THE UPPER LIMB: the exam will be joint for the 3 teachers with online interview between teachers and examining on a specific platform (Meet or Collaborate). The time of the exam will be 15-20 minutes for 3 questions asked (one for each teacher) on the different areas of the programs. To pass the exam, student must be sufficient in each questions of the 3 teachers. The vote will be expressed out of thirty. The sufficiency threshold is equal to 18/30. The grade will be published within 1 week on the Esse3 platform and will be overall for the 3 modules. The student has one week from publication to accept or decline the grade. - KINESIOLOGY MODULE: the exam consists on a written test on the Dolly platform using special control systems. The exam consists of 3 open questions relating to the program. Student have 60 minutes of total time: 20 minutes are given to answer each question. The evaluation will be expressed out of thirty. The sufficiency threshold is equal to 18/30. The rating will be published within 1 week on the Esse3 platform. The student has one week from publication to accept or decline the grade. - ELECTRONIC AND COMPUTER BIOENGINEERING: the exam is an on-line interview between the teacher and examining through a special platform (Collaborate or Meet). The duration will be 15-20 minutes and the questions will be asked on the different areas of the program. The evaluation will be expressed out of thirty. The sufficiency threshold is equal to 18/30. The evaluation will be published within 1 week on the Esse3 platform. The student has one week from publication to accept or decline the grade. FINAL EVALUATION of the entire COURSE is given by the weighted average of the partial rating of the 5 modules. The final evaluation will be published on Esse3 and subsequently recorded.
KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING
The student, at the end of the course, is able to:
- describe the main laws underlying biomechanics and the principles of kinesiology that give origin at the movement of the human body
- identify the main joints (joint physiology), muscles and the interconnected structures that regulate movement and be able to describe their characteristics
- describe not only the gesture but also complex functions such as walking and manipulation
- identify the main methodologies used for gait analysis
KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING APPLIED
- analyze for each joint of the human body the planes and axes of movement, active and passive ranges of motion, ligaments and tendons, interconnected structures, postural control, vector analysis, effects of gravity, compensation strategies implemented by the human body,
- distinguish the properties of the muscle, the types of movement, and the implications in relation to the properties of the muscle
- analyze the main joints of the human body, what are the possible movements for each of them, the degrees of freedom, how to perform a joint test.
- distinguish for each joint the muscles related, their origins, insertions and actions and how they are evaluated, how the muscle groups interact to give origin to movement
- elaborate joint and muscle functions in the main functions of daily life
- define the concepts of posture, support reactions, balance, elaboration of walking and manipulation function.
- recognize the main objectives of the walk and the mechanisms for obtaining them (energy efficiency, motion of the center of mass and forces).
- identify the main tools and methods for gait analysis
- analyze the graphs related to joint kinematics analysis of the hip, knee and ankle joint.
- recognize the main muscle activations in the different phases of the step.
AUTONOMY OF JUDGMENT
- analyze and evaluate the main joint movements with the application of specific tests to measure their amplitude
- analyze and evaluate the main muscular actions with the application of specific Strength and Length tests
- organize the knowledge learned to analyze the main functions of the human body both in individual movements and in more complex functions such as standing, walking and manipulation.
- analyze signs and rewards implemented by the human body
- evaluate the main muscle activations in the healthy subject during the different phases of the step
- use the specific terminology and specific concepts of the subject correctly
- correctly express their knowledge by elaborating the notions learned to describe in detail the movement of the human body (ability to analyze the single movement and to be able to carry the individual actions into the broader concepts of functions).
- apply the knowledge and skills learned in any situation where it is necessary to make a detailed analysis or more complex functions concerning the movement of the human body.
- the application initially on the healthy individual will allow in the future to see the implications in the pathology, to distinguish the relative alterations and to be able to formulate hypotheses regarding physiotherapeutic applications.
- use the terminology, the notions learned to implement the clinical reasoning method underlying the profession of the physiotherapist allowing the understanding of the relevant elements at the base of physiological and pathological processes.
- Kinesiology of the Musculoskeletal System - Donald Neumann. Ed. Elsevier
- Anatomia funzionale - A.I. Kapandji. Ed. Monduzzi
- Valutazione cinesiologica. Esame della mobilità articolare e della forza muscolare. - H.M. Clarkson. Edi-Ermes.
- I muscoli, funzioni e test con postura e dolore - Kendall. Ed. Verduci
- Tutte le slide dei docenti e il materiale da loro fornito è reperibile sul portale Dolly