Subject: ANATOMY (A.A. 2023/2024)
Unit Anatomia di base e del movimento
The aim of this course is, for the histology part, to provide knowledge of the structural organisation of the cells and tissues with particular reference to connective tissue, muscle tissue and nervous tissue. At the end of the course the student should be able to 1) describe the cell from a structural point of view 2) understand the concept of cell differentiation and correlate the morphological and structural differences of different cell types with their respective functional activities in different tissues. With regard to the anatomy part, the aim is to provide students with a sound knowledge of the general organisation of the human body and, in particular, of the locomotor system (with its skeletal, articular and muscular components) and the nervous system (central and peripheral). The student will have to place the relationships between cells, tissues, organs and apparatuses in a hierarchical view. He/she should train in the methodology of anatomical description, having acquired the definitions of anatomical position and body planes. He/she will have to understand the constitution and function of the locomotor apparatus (classification and morphological characteristics of the structures that participate in forming the skeletal, articular and muscular systems) and the anatomo-functional organisation of the central and peripheral nervous system (in somatic and visceral sections).
For a more complete understanding of the learning objectives, please refer to the expected learning outcomes.
Knowledge of general biology, cytology and histology (propaedeutic module).
Biology for TO: Characteristics of living beings. Organization of the eukaryotic cell: nucleus, cytoplasmic organelles, cytoskeleton, mitochondria. (0.2 credits) (2h)
Biological membranes: structure and functions. (0.1 credits) (1h)
Cell cycle, mitosis and meiosis. Stamina cells. (0.2 credits) (2h)
DNA replication, transcription and translation. (0.3 credits) (3h)
Intercellular communication and apoptosis. (0.2 credits) (2h)
HISTOLOGY: 2 CFU
Cell structure, epithelial tissue, connective tissue, cartilage, bone and muscle tissue,
nervous tissue, blood.
BASIC ANATOMY 1 CFU
Anatomical position and principal planes of section. Anatomical language (position terminology and movement terminology). Tegumentary apparatus (briefly), Cardio-vascular apparatus, Haemolymphopoietic apparatus (briefly), Respiratory apparatus, Digestive apparatus (briefly), Urinary apparatus (briefly), Endocrine apparatus, Locomotor apparatus, Nervous system: organisation of central and peripheral sections; sense organs (with special reference to the eyeball).
ANATOMY OF MOVEMENT 2CFU
OSTEOLOGY Subdivision of the skeleton: axile and appendicular.
Vertebral column: general conformation and physiological curvatures; general characteristics of the vertebrae and special features of the various sections (cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacro-coccygeal).
Appendicular skeleton: upper limb (scapular girdle, humerus, radius and ulna, hand bones) and lower limb (pelvic girdle, femur, tibia and fibula, foot bones).
ARTROLOGY. Synarthrosis (outline). Diarthrosis: structure and morpho-functional classification. Main joints of the body.
MYOLOGY. Main muscle groups: eye muscles and their innervation, mimic muscles, masticatory muscles, anterolateral neck muscles, dorsal muscles, thoraco-abdominal muscles.
General organisation of the central and peripheral nervous system.
Meninges, CSF system, spinal cord, brainstem, diencephalon and telencephalon.
Classification of sensitivity.
Ascending (sensitive) pathways and anatomical differences of conscious and unconscious sensitivity pathways. Descending (motor) pathways: pyramidal and extrapyramidal system.
Cerebellum: anatomical organisation and functions
Peripheral nervous system (spinal section): composition of the spinal nerves, formation of plexuses, innervation territories (hint).
Peripheral nervous system (encephalic section): meaning/function of the cranial nerves (overview).
The teaching methodology used to illustrate aspects of functional morphology is that of face-to-face lectures, with computer aids to demonstrate the structure and mode of functioning of the various tissues, organs and apparatuses, by means of power-point file and video projections. One or more exercises with real bones and at the virtual Anatomage table are planned. Attendance to at least 75 % of the lectures is compulsory. The course is delivered in Italian.
The verification of learning is carried out: for biology TO: written test consisting of 30 multiple choice questions. Test duration: 60 minutes. for the histology part, by written test with multiple-choice quizzes (approx. 20 questions) and 2/3 open questions; for anatomy, by means of an oral interview. The final mark is the weighted average of the marks obtained in the individual modules
KNOWLEDGE AND ABILITY OF UNDERSTANDING: At the end of the course it is hoped that the student will:
remember and be able to describe the structure and function of cells and tissues, the various levels of organisation of the human organism and the functional anatomy of its component organs and apparatuses.
CAPABILITY TO APPLY KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING: The student will be able to understand and be able to use, in the course of his or her profession: the complex functional interactions of the components of the locomotor apparatus in particular and their nervous regulation, but also of the other apparatuses.
AUTONOMY OF JUDGEMENT: the student will be able to understand, critically discuss and analyse the anatomical and structural aspects inherent to problems related to movement and its alterations.
COMMUNICATIVE SKILLS: The oral learning tests enable the student to develop the ability to describe effectively and comprehensively the anatomical formations dedicated to the functions covered by the professional figure and to express the concepts learnt in appropriate language, as well as to sustain a discussion on the subject.
LEARNING CAPABILITIES: the activities described enable the student to acquire the methodological tools to eventually continue his or her training in the practical field and to be able to independently provide for his or her own constant updating in the field of physical rehabilitation techniques.
Martini Timmons Tallitsch: Anatomia Umana, VI Edizione EdiSES
NETTER Atlante di anatomia umana, ottava edizione, Selezione tavole per Scienze Motorie e Fisioterapia, Edi-Ermes
ISTOLOGIA per le lauree triennali e magistrali. Idelson gnocchi
EdiSES Elementi di Biologia e Genetica P. Bonaldo, C. Crisafulli et al. ISBN 978-88-3319-038-9